Sakhr (Arabic: صخر "Rock" or the "Stony One"), Sakhr al-Marid (Arabic: صخر المارد), or Sakhr al-Madhard (Arabic: صخر المارد rogue stones), Jin Astar Kih, also known as Ashmedai (Hebrew: אַשְמְדּאָי, ʾAšmədʾāy) or Asmodeus (Greek: Ασμοδαίος, Asmodaios) which comes from the Persian Aeshma daeva (Aēšma daēva), also known as Haritsu and Faktash, was a giant jinni and master of the sea (صاحب البحر). He was the ifrit who is said to have obtained possession of Prophet Sulaiman's ring from a woman named Jarada (also known as Kūna, or al-Aminah) the daughter of King Sidun (ʿUkūz bin Maruh/Mazuh, or Nubara), and to have impersonated the King for forty days, when Sakhr flew away and threw the ring into the sea, where it was swallowed by a fish (a dolphin in some stories), which was afterwards caught and brought to Prophet Sulaiman, who by this means recovered his kingdom. Sulaiman sent for the shaytan, and he was brought. Sulaiman gave orders to place him in a chest of iron, and it was shut and locked with a lock. He sealed it with his signet ring, then he gave orders to cast it into the sea or imprisoned on Mount Damavand. The chest containing Sakhr was thrown into the lake of Tiberias. The shaytan will be in it until the Hour arrives. His real name was Ḥanqīq (in ar-Rabghūzī's Stories of the Prophets) or Habaqiq (حبقيق; as told in History of at-Tabari). He is also known as Kitovras according to Slavic legends.
In the books of the Herbeds and Majus it is related that Núshírwán the Just sent a trusty messenger to Ṣakhr the jinní, who, when the messenger came and saluted him, inquired who had sent him. On learning that it was Núshírwán, he rose to his feet, prayed, and gave three things to the messenger in a sealed packet, bidding him deliver them to the King, and entreat him in return to effect the release of the giver. These three things were three drugs, one to keep off old age, one to quicken digestion, and one an aphrodisiac. When these confections were brought to Núshírwán, he said, “I have no need of them, for old age is the ornament of man, and a source of dignity and honor: would that I were already old! Sexual desire, again, is only necessary for the continuance of the human race: whatever exceeds this is evil, not good. And artificial aids to digestion are only needful to him who eats too much; to the temperate man, who only eats to maintain his strength, they are useless and even pernicious. Over and above all this, these drugs may not possess the properties alleged, and may have been given me for my destruction.” Then he ordered the drug which was supposed to be a cure for old age to be given to a dog, and its head swelled up till it was as large as a cow’s, until it died in great agony, and was secretly buried by Núshírwán’s order.
Holy Qur'an (38:34): "And We certainly tried Sulaiman and placed on his throne a body; then he returned." (وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا سُلَيْمَانَ وَأَلْقَيْنَا عَلَىٰ كُرْسِيِّهِ جَسَدًا ثُمَّ أَنَابَ)
Ibn Abbas says in his Tafsir (for Surat Sad, Ayat 34): "(And verily We tried Sulaiman) by the loss of his kingdom for 40 days, the number of days in which the idols were worshipped in his house, (and set upon his throne a (mere) body) a shaytan. (Then did he repent) then did he return to his kingdom and to the obedience of his Lord and repented from his sin."
According to Tafsir al-Jalalayn "And We certainly tried Sulaiman: We tested him by wresting his kingdom from him, because he had married a woman [solely] out of his desire for her. She used to worship idols in his [own] home without his knowledge. Now, [control of] his kingdom lay in his ring. On one occasion, needing to withdraw [to relieve himself], he took it off and left it with this woman of his, whose name was al-Amīna, as was his custom; but a jinni, [disguised] in the form of Sulaiman, came to her and seized it from her. And We cast upon his throne a [lifeless] body, which was that [very] jinni, and he was [the one known as] Sakhr — or it was some other [jinni]; he sat upon Sulaiman’s throne and so [as was the case with Sulaiman] the birds and other [creatures] devoted themselves to him [in service]. When Sulaiman came out [of his palace], having seen him [the jinni] upon his throne, he said to the people, ‘I am Sulaiman [not him]!’ But they did not recognise him. Then he repented — Sulaiman returned to his kingdom, many days later, after he had managed to acquire the ring. He wore it and sat upon his throne [again]."
In the Qisas al-'Anbiya (Stories of the Prophets) by Abu Ishaq ath-Tha'labi (d. 427 AH) it is said that "Buluqiya said to the king of the jinn whose name was Sakhr, 'Sakhr, tell me about the creation of the jinn. How did it come about?' He replied; 'When Allah created Jahannam He made seven gates for it and seven tongues. Of these, He created two creatures; one creature in His heaven which he named Jabalit (حيليت), and one creature on Earth, which he named Tamalit (تمليت). As for Jabalit, he was created in the form of a lion, while Tamalit had the form of a wolf. He made the lion male and the wolf female. He made the height of each of the two of them equal [the distance of] a five hundred-year journey. He made the tail of the wolf in the status of that of a scorpion, and the tail of the lion of equal status to that of a snake. He commanded both of them to shake themselves in the Fire, and from the tail of the wolf fell a scorpion, and from the tail of the lion a snake. From them come all the snakes and scorpions of Jahannam. Then He commanded them to wed each other, and the wolf was impregnated by the lion and gave birth to seven sons and seven daughters. Allah inspired them that they give the sons in marriage to the daughters as He had commanded Adam, and six of the sons obeyed while one did not and did not marry. So his father cursed him, and he is Iblis. His name was al-Harith (الحارث) and his by-name Abu Murrah (أبو مرة), and this is the beginning of the creation of the jinn, Buluqiya! Verily our steeds will not stand still for humans, but I will cover my horse and veil him so he will not know who rides him. So ride him in Allah's name. And when you have reached the farthest of my provinces, you will come upon an old man and a youth and some others with the two of them, and you will meet the two of them and give the horse to them. So go, with Allah's protection, rightly guarded!'"
Prophet Sulaiman, wishing to find out how to cut metal noiselessly, had the water in a well replaced with wine and so made Sakhr drunk. He then persuaded the jinni to tell him the secret and was referred to the raven. The king hid two of the bird's eggs under a crystal bowl and the raven then arrived with a stone called a samur in its beak and used it to crack the bowl. Sulaiman then dispatched his jinn to find the source of this mystery stone and they returned with enough for all his workmen who could thereafter work without disturbing others.
- Aeshma (𐬀𐬉𐬱𐬆𐬨𐬀)
- Ashema Deva
- Eshm (𐭠𐭩𐭱𐭬)
- Eshmaki (ეშმაკი)
- Kheshm (خشم ,𐭧𐭩𐭱𐭬)
- Ashmedai (אשמדאי)
- Asmodeus (Ἀσμοδαῖος)
- Astar Kih - Malay literature
- Habaqiq (حبقيق) - History of at-Tabari
- Hammadai (חמדאי)
- Hanqiq - ar-Rabghūzī's Stories of the Prophets
- Hashmedai (חשמדאי)
- Kitovras (Китоврас)
- Marcolf - From Solomon and Marcolf. A seemly case of Chinese whispers.
- Sakhr (صخر)
- Shamdon (שמדון)