The jinn (Arabic: الجن al-jinn; singular: الجان al-jānn; adjective: الجني feminine: جنية jinniyya; Berber: Jnun; singular: jinn; Turkish: Cin; Latin: Genii; singular: Genius; Albanian: Xhind; Bosnian: Džin; Ge’ez: ጋኔን Ganen), commonly known as demons (Greek: δαίμων daimon; Latin: Daemon) in English, are free willed spiritual beings created from smokeless fire, invisible to the human eye. They are not to be confused with angels. They may be either male or female. They eat and drink, need a dwelling place, occupy space and can have children. Jinn also live in an established society and have kings. Jinn are very advanced and were on Earth before us: but caused harm, they live a parallel life, Jinnistan is referred to as the jinn's countryside. On earth, jinn occupy haunted places, such as hills, caves, rivers, rocks, trees, certain lands, long unoccupied houses, certain bath houses, wells, bridges, lakes, mosques, ruins, cemeteries. When a person stays at a jinn-occupied place, especially if alone, the jinn may cause disturbances by producing unidentified sounds, making doors or windows close and open, moving articles or even a sleeping person from one place to another, making things disappear; causing strange incidents, etc. People who experience these kinds of incidents usually feel scared. In these cases the jinn probably do intend to frighten people so that they will leave and will not return to occupy that place again so that the jinn can claim the place for itself. Persuading jinn to leave an occupied place can be done by specialists, or indeed by non-specialists, through negotiation or by force. Intentionally or unintentionally disturbing or destroying the places occupied by jinn can be treated as serious offenses to them. If so, they may lose their temper and take revenge; as a result the person concerned will suffer from some kind of illness (physical or mental). If appropriate measures are not taken to persuade the jinn to stop their action, the illness could end in death. Again, these measures can be taken by a specialist or by any one who can negotiate with, or force, the jinn to stop their action.
Like human beings, jinn are subject to the temptations of Iblis. There are some jinn, therefore, who are good, pious and faithful, and some others who are bad, sinful and infidel. Bad jinn may be malevolent to human, whereas good jinn may be benevolent by helping people do some hard work, or produce magical acts. Jinn can also assume many forms including that of human beings; but most usually they assume the form of an animal, for example, a snake, a lion, a donkey, a cat, or a dog. A jinn who assumes the form of a cat may either have only one color (totally white, brown or black) or have a combination of three colors. Killing or beating such a pseudo-animal, (that is a transformed jinn) is risky because the jinn, its friends or its kin may take deadly revenge. The risk is more serious than when merely disturbing or destroying their places.
The original shape of a jinn however, is unknown. Some people suggest the possibility of co-operation between humans and jinn for special purposes such as making friends, even marrying jinn and taking jinn as servants, in the case of benevolent jinn. This is possible for anyone who masters the mystery of jinn and learns knowledge of the mysterious world. Some kyai are certainly known to have that mastery. There are a number of ways to acquire this mastery, one of which is by doing an exercise, aiming to gain the marvel and secret merits of the Verse of Throne (Ayat Kursi) of the Holy Qur'an in Surat Al-Baqarah [verse 255].
The jinn are capable of shapeshifting, being able to take the form of human, animal or a hybrid of both. Like mankind, the jinn also live in societies, practice religion, feel emotion, eat, drink and procreate. Attacks and possessions usually occur when one unknowingly inflicts harm upon a jinni or family of jinn that reside within houses. To avoid this one should recite the Basmalah (invoking the Name of the God of Abraham, Hebrew: El (אל) or Eloah (אלוה); Aramaic: Alaha (ܐܠܗܐ); Arabic: Allah (الله)) before entering the home.
The Indians, the Persians, and the Greeks treated the genealogy and tribes of the jinn and gave the names of their kings, and they believed they were divided into twenty-one tribes. When their empire had lasted five thousand years, they appointed a king from among themselves and called Shāma’īl, son of Aras (شمائيل بن أرس). Then they divided and named five kings, and they stayed a long time in this state. At the end, some of the jinn attacked each other, and there were a great number of battles and terrible wars.
To the Persians Jann (جان) is the father of the jinn; he is called Tarnush (طارنوش) in the Book of Adam (اسفار آدم). When his descendants had grown numerous upon the earth God granted them a religious law, to which he made them subject; they remained obedient to it until the end of one revolution of the fixed stars, the duration of which is thirty-six thousand, or, according to others, eighty thousand two hundred years; but after this time they rebelled through pride; for punishment God caused them all to perish save the poor and humble who had remained in the way of obedience; for governor he gave these one of themselves named Hilyaish (حليايش).
After the expiration of another revolution of the fixed stars these also in turn rebelled; God destroyed them all save a small number that remained faithful, over whom he set a chief named Maliqa (مليقا). At the end of the third revolution once more the children of Jann left the straight path and fell victims to the wrath of the Most High; the few that remained steadfast became in sequence of time an immense people ruled over by Hamus (هاموس), celebrated for his merits, his learning, and his uprightness; he spent his life in upholding the reign of justice and good. After his death the wicked disobeyed, and God sent them prophets to give them good counsel, but they would not hearken. At the end of the fourth revolution God sent a legion of angels to war upon them; they descended from heaven and fought against the children of Jann, and slew the greater part of them; the remnant scattered through the islands and ruined places; some that had not reached years of discernment were made prisoners by the angels. Among these were Iblis (the Devil, Satan), who accompanied the angels on their return to heaven, and was brought up among them; his education progressed so far that he was in turn appointed to teach them. The place where he engaged in preaching was at the foot of the throne of God; he was mounted upon a pulpit of ruby, and over his head flew a banner of light. So numerous were his hearers that only the Deity could count them.
After many years the children of Jann, having multiplied anew, came forth from the islands, from the ruins and desert places, took possession of the habitable earth, and abandoned the path of uprightness. Iblis begged and obtained permission to go to them and preach sound doctrine to them; he came down from heaven upon the earth accompanied by a troop of angels; a small number of the sons of Jann, who had remained faithful, hastened to enroll in his service. The archangel 'Azazil sent them as ambassador one Sahlub bin Mulatib (سهلوب بن ملاتب), to bring the people to the right path; but the rebels slew him without Iblis knowing it.
Seeing that the messenger was long in coming back, 'Azazil dispatched another, who found the same fate; then he entrusted this mission to certain of their own kin, but those impure beings treated them in the same fashion. Finally he sent to them Yusuf ibn Wasif (يوسف بن ياسف), who by clever devices succeeded in escaping from them, and returned to bring back news of the situation. Iblis, after obtaining authority to do so, set out at the head of a legion of angels to fight against them; he slew them nearly all, and scattered the survivors over the various regions of t he earth. Become independent, he raised the standard of autocracy and claimed to be sovereign. "If the Creator," he said to himself, "entrusts the power to another I will refuse to recognize him." In a word, he saw himself perfect in theory and practice, and judged no one more worthy than himself to fulfill these high functions. Infatuated with himself, sometimes he was upon the earth and anon he set forth for heaven.
In these circumstances one day a group of angels went to contemplate the Tablet of Divine Decrees; on their return Iblis perceived the melancholy that darkened their brows. He inquired the reason. "We found," said they, "in the Tablet of Divine Decrees that soon one of the archangels would be expelled from heaven and laid under an eternal curse; we are concerned over the fate that is awaiting one of us. We implore of you to entreat the Supreme King not to try any of us by this dreadful calamity; we are in the very depths of terror and affright." "Take no thought for this," rejoined Iblis, "for this thing touches neither me nor you. I have known of this future project for many years, and I have never spoken of it to anyone." In his pride Iblis paid no heed to the words of the angels, and thought neither of humbling himself nor submission. And thus it was he earned everlasting condemnation.
At this moment there thundered forth in the ears of inhabitants of the earth the divine word of the Qur'an. God said: "I will appoint me a vicar upon the earth," and the creation of Adam was determined. "What," cried Iblis, "could a creature created out of slime pretend to be above me, who was created out of fire? Earth is dense and dark, while fire is subtle and light." Thus he persisted in his fault and was damned.
It is believed that the chief abode of the jinn is in the mountains of Qaf, which are supposed to encompass the whole of the earth. But they are also believed to pervade the solid body of the earth, and the firmament; and to choose, as their principal places of resort, or of occasional abode, baths, wells, and the latrina, ovens, ruined houses, market-places, the junctures of roads, the sea, and rivers.
The Arabs, therefore, when they pour water on the ground, or enter a bath, or let down a bucket into a well, or visit the latrina, and on various other occasions, say, "Permission!" or "Permission, ye blessed!" (Izn! or Izn ya Mubarakun!). The evil jinn, it is said, had liberty to enter any of the seven heavens till the birth of Jesus, when they were excluded from three of them. On the birth of Muhammad, they were forbidden the other four. They continue, however, to ascend to the confines of the lowest heaven, and there listening to the conversation of the angels respecting things decreed by Allah, obtain knowledge of futurity, which they sometimes impart to men, who by means of talismans or certain invocations make them to serve the purposes of magical performances.
What the Prophet Muhammad said of Iblis in the following tradition, applies also to the evil jinn over whom he presides: "His chief abode [among men] is the bath; his chief places of resort are the markets and junctures of roads; his food is whatever is killed without the name of Allah being pronounced over it; his drink, whatever is intoxicating; his Mu'azzin the mizmar (a musical pipe, i.e. any musical instrument); his Qur'an, poetry; his written character, the marks made in geomancy; his speech, falsehood; his snares are women."
It is said in the Holy Qur'an (72:6), "And there were men from mankind who sought refuge in men from the jinn, so they [only] increased them in burden." In the commentary of the Jalalan, the following remark on these words: – "When they halted, on their journey, in a place of fear, each man said, 'I seek refuge with the lord of this place, from the mischief of his foolish ones!'" In illustration of this, here is a tradition, translated from al-Qazwini – “It is related by a certain narrator of traditions, that he descended into a valley with his sheep, and a wolf carried off an ewe from among them; and he arose and raised his voice, and cried 'O inhabitant of the valley!' Whereupon he heard a voice saying, 'O wolf, restore to him his sheep!' And the wolf, restore to him his sheep! And the wolf came with ewe, and left her, and departed.” The same opinion is held by the modern Arabs, though probably they do not use such an invocation.
It is said that in each quarter of the city of Cairo there is a peculiar guardian jinni (genius loci), which has the form of a serpent.
The jinn eat and drink. Ibn Mas'ood said: "The Messenger of God said: 'Someone from among the jinn called me, and I went with him and recited Qur'an for them.' He took us and showed us the traces of where they had been and the traces of their fires. They asked him for food and he said, 'You can have every bone on which the name of God has been mentioned that comes into your possession, as meat, and all the droppings as food for your animals.' The Prophet Muhammad said, 'So do not use [these things] for cleaning yourselves [after relieving oneself], for they are the food and provision of your brothers.'" (Reported by Muslim, 450).
According to another report: "A delegation of jinn from Naseebeen came to me, and what good jinn they are! They asked me for food and I prayed to God for them, so that they would not pass by bones or droppings, but they would find food on them." (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 3571). The believing jinn may eat any bone on which the name of God has been mentioned, because the Messenger Muhammad did not permit them to have anything on which God's name has not been mentioned - those are for the kuffaar among the jinn.
Ibn Abdul Barr said, "The jinn, according to the scholars of the language, are of different types:
If one is mentioning the jinn purely of themselves, they are called jinni. If one is mentioning the jinn that live among mankind, they are called aamar whose plural is amaar. If one is mentioning the ones that antagonize the young, they are called arwaah. If one is mentioning the evil ones that antagonize humans they are called shaitan for the singular [pl. shayateen]. If they cause even more harm and become strong, they are called afreet." Book - "The World of the Jinn and Devils", p. 7
Among the Muslim jinn there is a class of Imam or leaders, like Abufarda, Masur, Darbag, Qalis and Abu-Malik. In the Tasir-i-kabir it is stated that the jinn are of four kinds: Falakiya, who inhabit the firmament; Qutbiya, who reside about the north pole; Wahmiya, who haunt the imaginations of men; Firdausiya, who dwell in Jannah. In the Tafsir-i-niyabiya it is said that there are twelve troops of the jinn, six occupying Rum or Turkey, Farang or Europe, Yunan, Rus, Babil and Sahbatan. The other six are in the region of Yajuj and Majuj, the latter perhaps Armenia, Nubat, Zanzibar, India and Sind. Among these three legions are Muslim and their king is Bakhtanus. As to the real nature of the jinn, they are nine-tenths spirits and one-tenth flesh.
The scholars have mentioned the types of the jinn. According to them, there are thirty-five tribes of shayatin, fifteen tribes of jinn that fly in the air, [twenty-five tribes of jinn who walk on land, twenty tribes of jinn that live in the water, twelve tribes of jinn who run in storms,] ten tribes of jinn who run in the flame, thirty tribes of jinn occupied with the magic of sounds. The kings of these tribes are responsible for protecting them against danger.
In Mas'udi's celebrated Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems (مروج الذهب ومعادن الجوهر), he explains the creation of the jinn:
It is said that Allah created the jinn from the semoum (burning wind); that from the jinni he created his woman, as he created Hawwa from Adam; that the jinni having had relations with his woman, she became pregnant from him and laid thirty eggs. One of these eggs cracked open, giving birth to the qotrobaht, which was, so to speak, the mother of all the qotiobs, jinn that have the form of a cat. From another egg emerged the iblises, in whose number must be counted al-Harith Abou Murrah and which make their home within walls. From another egg were hatched the maradahs, which inhabit islands. Another produced the ghul, which chose for their refuge ruins and deserts; another, the si'lahs, which hide in the mountains; the others, the ouahaouis, which inhabit the air in the form of winged serpents, and fly from place to place. From another egg emerged the daouasiks; from yet another the hamasiks; from still another the hamamis, and so forth.’
The jinn are capable of speaking the many languages of those humans with whom they come in contact with.
According to some traditions from the Maghreb, they speak Suryaniyya, or ancient Syriac. In the twelfth century CE, under the Berber Muslim al-Muwahhidun dynasty, an aide to secretary of the Imam Ibn Tumart, Mallul bin Ibrahim bin Yahya as-Sanhaji, was described as a man who knew many languages and who wrote in the Suryaniyya script, which Berbers called the language of communication with the jinn.
According to the people of Morocco, the jinn speak, but their language is different from that of men; when a jinni speaks through the mouth of a human being, he calls money ashor instead of flus (ڢلوس), and excrements jatu; and his voice is very thin.
Some contend that the jinn are also telepathic and can communicate mentally, without an actual spoken language. This facilitates jinn possession of human beings, for it allows the spirit beings to transfer thoughts to the minds of the possessed. It also allows jinn to "speak" among themselves without being heard.
Jinn, like humans, have many faiths: Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, paganism. The good jinn acquit themselves of the imperative duties of religion, namely, prayers, alms-giving, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and pilgrimage to Makkah and Mount Arafat, but in the performance of these duties they are generally invisible to human beings.
In the nineteenth century CE, Egyptian physician 'Abd ar-Rahman Isma'il took note of Christian jinn in his Old Wives' Medicine, published in Cairo in 1892-1894 CE. He pointed out that Muslim healers in his day used images of Christian crosses to protect people against Nasrani jinn:
One of the methods of 'cure' [for a headache or suda' ] is to draw a cross on the temple of the patient with saliva ... We have even seen many fools who have tattooed crosses upon their temples to guard against the evil of suda' .
The logic of such treatments is unclear. Perhaps Christian jinn would be deterred from causing headaches if they saw that their potential victim was marked with a cross and thus appeared to be a Christian as well.
On the authority of Abdullah bin Masud that the Prophet Muhammad once, said to his Sahabah in Makkah: "Whosoever from amongst you desires to see the jinn, he should come to me tonight." Abdullah bin Masud stated that nobody except me came that night. The Prophet took me with him to a high hill in Makkah (Ma’la district). He drew a circle with his foot for me and advised me to keep sitting within that circle. Seating Abdullah bin Masood within that circle, he advanced ahead and then stood at a place. There, he started recitation of the Holy Qur'an. All of a sudden a big group of jinn encircled the Prophet and that group stood as a wall between me and the Prophet and I heard the jinn saying: "Who gives evidence that you are the Prophet." There was a tree nearby. The Prophet observed: "Will you accept my claim if this tree gives the evidence?" The jinn said: "Yes, we shall accept it." On that, the Prophet called the tree. The tree came nearby and gave the evidence accordingly and all the jinn embraced Islam.
Ad-Damiri (1344-1405 CE) tells a story of the Sufi, ‘Abdul Qader al-Gilani (1078-1166 CE), known for his power over the jinn: "A man (Abu Sa'd 'Abdullah bin Ahmad) from Baghdad came one day to the sheikh ‘Abdul Qader al-Gilani and informed him the jinn abducted his daughter (Fatimah), and asked for his help. So, the sheikh told him to do the following: 'Go this night to the ruin of al-Karkh. Sit at the fifth hill and draw a circle on the floor and say while drawing it: "In the name of Allah and according to ‘Abdul Qader’s intention." When the night becomes pitch black, you will see tribes of jinn passing by you in different shapes. Don’t be afraid! None among them can enter the circle where you sit. When their king comes, he will approach you and inquire about your presence among them. You ought to tell him your story.” The man followed exactly the orders of ‘Abdul Qader al-Gilani. As the Sufi sheikh told him, none of the jinn was able to enter the circle where he was sitting until came the king of the jinn who questioned him, and then brought his daughter back to him. She was abducted by one jinni from China! He fell in love with her and carried her away."
No man, it is said, ever obtained such absolute power over the jinn as Sulaiman bin Dawud. This he did by virtue of a most wonderful talisman which is said to have come down to him from heaven. It was a sealing ring, upon which was engraved “The Most Great Name” of Allah (Ismul Azam), and was partly composed of brass and partly of iron. With the brass he stamped his written commands to the good jinn; with the iron those of the evil jinn. Over both orders he had unlimited power, as well as over the birds and the winds, and as is generally said, the wild beasts. His wazir, Asaf bin Barkhiyah, is also said to have been acquainted with “The Most Great Name”, by uttering which the greatest miracles may be performed, even that of raising the dead. By virtue of this Name, engraved on his ring, Sulaiman compelled the jinn to assist in building the Bayt al-Maqdis, and in various other works. Many of the evil jinn he converted to the true faith, and many others of this class, who remained obstinate in infidelity, he confined in prisons.
Jinn are said to be deathly afraid of iron, and sometimes steel. In North Africa salt is used as a talisman against them and is even mixed into the walls of houses to keep them out. The people of Morocco have a custom of throwing salt into a crackling fire to extinguish the ardor of the spirits that have taken possession of the fire. Moroccans will sprinkle salt under the bed of a woman who has given birth, or on a site chosen for setting up the tents of the douar (camp), or on heaps of grain and in grain silos. A knife blade to be used to sacrifice an animal is often passed over some salt beforehand. Some Moroccans believe that the sea is not haunted by the jinn because of the salt it contains. When a person enters the sea to bathe, there is no need to pronounce the bismillah – a practice that is obligatory if one bathes in sweet water or enters a water tank to clean it.
In Muslim Arab lands during the month of Ramadan, shayatin are confined in prison; thus, on the final night of the holy month, women sometimes repeat the bismallah and sprinkle salt on the floors of their houses.
Particularly in Morocco, iron is regarded as a great protection against evil jinn. A knife with an iron blade is often placed beneath the pillow of a sick person. Moroccans have a custom of putting a worn-out sickle or old knife blade in silos to keep the jinn away from the grain. Also nailing horseshoes over the door of a house or stable to assure good luck.
The Zauba'ah, which is a whirlwind that raises the sand or dust in the form of a pillar or prodigious height, often seen sweeping across the deserts and fields, is believed to be caused by the flight of an evil jinni. Sometimes Arabs will seek protection from jinn that ride whirlwinds by exclaiming, "Hadid! Hadid!" (Iron! Iron!), or, "Hadid! Ya Mashum!" (حديد يا مشئوم; Iron! Thou unlucky!), because of the jinn's terror of the metal. Or they exclaim, "Allahu Akbar!" (Allah is Greater!).
In India, jinn are thought to fear iron in any form, and traditional Hindu women wear iron bracelets as wedding bands regardless of caste.
The ring of King Sulaiman was brass-and-iron, the brass gave him command over the good jinn, while the silver over the bad jinn.
Like humans, jinn interact with various plants, bushes and trees in their environment, making use of some and avoiding others. Some plants and trees have long-standing traditional associations with the jinn – sometimes even serving as their homes.
Jinn are said to be attracted to the lote-tree or sidr (سدر) (Ziziphus nummularia), a wild, thorny shrub-like tree that grows in desert areas where ground water accumulates. An old legend cited in Muslim sources says that this is also the tree from which Jesus' crown of thorns was made.
Arab tribes living in the northern ranges of the lote-tree – in the Najd region of central Arabia – believed that sidr thickets were haunted by jinn who "have their gardens" there. The trees were, therefore, not used for fuel by local villagers or Bedouins.
Some Bedouins from northern Arabia regard a shrub known as 'awsaj (عوسج) (Lycium shawii) as another abode of jinn. The Rwala tribe of this area would not cut 'awsaj for fuel to avoid provoking the spirits that resided in the shrubs. The Bedouins of Kuwait avoided cutting the plant because of its association with jinn. The awsaj bushes in Kuwait area were sometimes seen surrounded by stones because passing Bedouins would seek to keep the jinn at bay by tossing a stone at the bush and reciting a protective phrase, such as Bismallah.
As well as plants that attract jinn, there are also plants that jinn avoid, just as humans might steer clear of poison ivy or Jimson weed.
One of these plants is Syrian rue (Peganum harmala, called حرمل harmal or feyjan in Arabic), a medicinal herb that grows throughout Southwest Asia, including the Arabian Peninsula, where it is associated with the jinn. Harmal is sill highly regarded for its more supernatural properties. It is one of the shajarat al-jinn (شجرة الجن; plants of the jinn) and precautions should be taken when gathering it: the collector should wear a piece of iron, which repels jinn, and he should approach the plant praising Allah and pronouncing the Holy Qur'anic formulas. He should not come under any shade cast by the plant – the shade being particularly dangerous – nor should the plant be collected before dawn. When plunking the stem, one would traditionally say, "I take this from you in the name of Allah on behalf of so-and-so," extending a piece of iron towards the plant while picking it.
In the last century, leaves and fresh growing tips of harmal were rubbed all over the body to protect against jinn and the evil eye. The plant, though known now to contain toxic alkaloids, was sometimes boiled and the water drunk on an empty stomach to ease abdominal pains. Some of this water was also rubbed on the painful area. This treatment was said to be particularly effective for women suffering from postpartum pains, both to relieve the discomfort and to protect the mother, who was believed to be vulnerable to evil influences at that time. Also, harmal leaves were sometimes thrown into the night fire to keep away evil and to protect sleepers.
Indian costus (القسط الهندي) or Saussurea costus is a plant that has been cultivated for thousands of years in Kashmir and other high elevations of India and is known for its ability to repel jinn. It also happens to be an important medicinal plant still widely used in Ayurvedic medicine and other systems for the treatment of various ailments, including asthma, inflammatory diseases, ulcers and stomach problems. Recent research has shown that it may also possess anti-cancer properties.
Some Saudi religious scholars assert that nose drops made of Indian costus-root powder, mixed with olive oil, may be used to exorcise a "stubborn" jinni who has possessed a person and is not easily expelled. This practice dates back at least to the times of the Prophet Muhammad and is reported in the hadiths. Says Dr. Abuʼl-Mundhir Khalil bin Ibrahim Ameen, Saudi authority on jinn and human sickness: "The patient should take it in through the nose, so that the costus goes straight to the brain where the jinni is located, and he will be greatly annoyed by it, so much so that he will not be able to bear it and will hasten to flee, or he will talk to the practitioner and promise to leave and not come back." It is not known what property of the plant the jinn find so distressing.
The Easter tree (Holarrhena antidysenterica), also called ivory tree or Tellicherry bark, is from India and has a seed that is light brown, elongated, brittle and nut-like. Used medicinally in the Middle East, the seed is ground and mixed with water and is used both externally and internally. Healers massage the body with the mixture to drive away pain and aches caused by jinn. Used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, astringent and febrifuge, it can also cure amoebic dysentery, worms, restlessness, tremors and insomnia.
Found on Socotra Island off Yemen, the solid purple resin from the Dam al-Akhawain (دم الأخوين, blood of two brothers) or Dragon's Blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari) is mixed with other drugs, added to soup or boiled in water. Taken internally, it helps drive away jinn, treats eye disease, rids newborns of meconium, decreases crying as well as fever and treats rash, haemorrhaging, foot/leg pain, dysentery and diarrhea. The resin is an astringent and can be used as a tooth powder. It can also supposedly induce abortion.
The asafoetida plant (Ferula) grows in western Saudi Arabia. Often called devil's dung, its resin is sticky and has a strong odor. It is boiled; the liquid can be drunk or the resin chewed. The dry powder may be put in the nostrils of a child. It is used to treat colic. It is also used as a seasoning, perfume, laxative, expectorant, sedative for mild hysteria and anti-spasmodic. Some people wear a bag of the resin around the neck to ward off evil spirits. It can substitute for myrrh.
Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) is a yellow, tear-shaped aromatic resin that grows in India, Iran and the Mediterranean. The best mastic grows in the Greek islands. An astringent, it is taken internally or externally. It can be burnt and vapors allowed to fill the room. Combined with other herbs, it is used for fevers, as flavoring in jams and chewing gum, as temporary filling for carious teeth and as a protective covering for wounds. It is also used to drive away jinn.
Grown in India and Iran, the fruit and aromatic seed of jinn's apple or Cupressus are burnt in a fire, producing vapors that are inhaled to treat whooping cough and expel worms. Also, the vapors are known to drive away jinn from people.
Jinn have a particular aversion to citron (الأترج al-Utruj) (Citrus medica), the large yellow-green fruit that was one of the first citrus varieties to be introduced to Europe from the Orient.
Ad-Damiri wrote that jinn will not enter a house in which there are citrons. He cites the example of an imam named Abu al-Hasan bin Muhammad al-Khal'i, a companion of pre-eminent Arab jurist Muhammad bin Idris ash-Shafi'i (767-820 CE), founder of the Shafi'i school of Islam. Al-Khal'i used to serve as a qadi or Islamic judge for a group of jinn, even though he was human. These particular jinn for whatever reason lacked an Islamic judge in their own community and thus asked al-Khal'i to rule from the bench on their behalf. Since Islam in its essentials was the same for men and jinn, this type of temporary arrangement is conceivable. The jinn stayed away from the judge's court for a week, and when they finally came back to him, he asked why they had stayed away. The jinn replied that there was citron in his house, and they would not enter a home in which that fruit was found.
The imam, relating this story, said, "The Prophet ... cited a comparison between the believer who recites the Qur'an and the citron, because the shaytan flees the heart of a believer reciting the Qur'an just as he flees a place in which there is citron. It is appropriate therefore to cite a comparison with it, in contrast to the other fruits."
Most of these jinn-repelling plants are valuable medicinal herbs in their own right that happen to treat in a purely conventional manner illnesses or complaints often attributed in olden times to jinn. Thus the plants do double duty, not only treating the given ailment chemically but also driving off the offending shayatin.
Mahkama on Thursday (Males)
- al-Haj al-Mekkawi
- al-Fqih Shamharush
- al-Fqih Mulay Ahmed
- Ben 'Ashir
Mahkama on Saturday (Males)
- al-Haj Mimoun
- al-Haj Mimoun Ba Sidi
Mahkama on Monday (Females)
- Malika/al-Hajja Malika
Mahkama on Wednesday (Females)
- Mimouna I-Bahrawiya
Mahkama on Friday (Females)
- 'Aicha al-Bahrawiya
- 'Aicha mulat al-Wad/mulat al-Merja
Mahkama on Saturday (Males)
- Mimoun alGnawi
- Mimoun Sahrawi
- Mimoun Ganga
- Mimoun Lihudi
Mahkama of the butchers (gezzars) on Sunday (Males)
- al-Basha Hammou
- Hammou al-Mershishi
- Taik Sidi Hammou
- Hammou Siyaf
- Taik Bukumiya
Mahkama on Wednesday (Females)
- Mira al-Marshishiya
- Mira khut al-Basha Hammou
- Mira al-Gnawiya
- Mimouna Sudaniya
- Mimouna al-Gnawiya
- Um Sabyan (al-Qraina)
Mahkama on Friday (Females)
- 'Aicha Sudaniya
- 'Aicha u'wisha
- 'Aicha Qandisha
- 'Aicha Rubala
- 'Aicha al-Baghiya
The below Qasam (قسم: Oath) should be recited prior to any jinn conjurations. It is useful in inviting the king of jinn and khodam from whatever conjurations. It is suffice just to recite this Qasam 1x while burning incense. This Qasam is taken from Kitab Jawahir al-Lama'ah page 92 in Chapter 3 Fi Dzikri Ba'dul Aqsami wad Da'awati wa Istikhadamati". The chapter explains part of Qasam and Dua for attracting various khodam. The editor is al-Ustadz al-Kabir Sheikh Abu Hayyilah al-Marzuqi. This Qasam contains many benefits that are impossible to be written down. Amongst the benefits are to hasten the appearance and to control khodam, jinn controlling river, lakes, cave, plantations etc.
It is narrated by sheikh Ibn al-Haj at-Talmani al-Maghrabi (ابن الحاج التلمساني المغربي) in his Shumus al-Anwar wa-Kunuz al-Asrar al-Kubra (شموس الانوار وكنوز الاسرار الكبرى) met with seven kings of jinn in a cave after he perform the prayer, one of the seven jinn kings named Ismail al-Katib told Sheikh Ibn Haji to recite "'Ahad Sulaiman" so that the jinn will speak honestly. Ismail al-Katib is the leader of the seven jinn kings of this world.
The king jinni Ismail al-Katib continued "Oh Ibn Haji, the jinn race is composed of 70,000 Qabila (قبيلة: tribes), each Qabila is comprised of 70,000 jinn race. If you drop a piece of needle from the sky, then the needle surely will hit a jinn."
Below is just part of the name of jinn that can be summoned with this Qasam:
- Ifrit Dimriyat (دمرياط)
- Ifrit Syugol
- Ifrit Man'iq
- Hadliyaj - The above are four principle jinn of Prophet Sulaiman.
- Hamah bin Alhiim bin Laqoysin
- Syaywarod (شيوارد)
- 'Arwarod (وعرورد)
- Ifrit Rowdayail al-Harib (روديائيل العفريت الهارب) - This is one of the Ifrit expelled from the kingdom of Sulaiman.
- Zawba'ah ar-Riyah (زوبعة الرياح) - King of jinn of wind.
- Ifrit Dahmusyin (دهموش)
- Samtoyal (سمطيل)
- Yaqutatah bint Malik al-Akbar (الياقوتة بنت الملك الأكبر) - Jinni Princess
- Abu Hamid al-Hindi bin al-'Allamah Syantun (أبو حامد الهندي بن شنطون العلامة) - This jinni likes black color and comes from India. His father is Sheikh Toriqoh.
- Banu Ghilan (بنو غيلان) - This Qabila likes to stay in caves.
- Banu Khonadiq - This Qabila likes to pray to God.
- Syamsul Qirmid Binti Malik al-Abyad (شمس القوامد بنت الملك الأبيض) - Princess of white jinn.
- Fatimah as-Sahabiyyah (فاطمة السحابية) - Jinn princess from Qabilah of clouds who likes to wear red.
- Dardam (دردم)
- 'Asob bin Syamaliqoh (عصاب بن الشمالقة)
- Awlad Ahmar (أولاد الأحمر) - Awlad Ahmar are Qabila jinn who likes to stay near water source.
- Banu Qomaqim (بنو القماقم) - Qabila jinn who stays in mountains.
- Banu Nu'man (بنو النعمان) - Qabila jinn who likes to stay in human houses.
- Banu Qoy'an (بنو قيعان) - Qabila jinn who likes to stay on big rocks.
- Banu Qoysan (بنو قيشان) - Qabila jinn who likes to stay on big trees.
- Banu Dahman (بنو دهمان) - Qabila jinn who dwell in cemeteries.
- Banu 'Issy (بنو العش) - Qabila jinn who flies.
- Awlad Harist (أولاد الحارث) - Qabila jinn who dwell in plantations.
- Syamat - Qabila jinn who dwell near fire.
- And many more.
The below is Qasam Ibtidaul 'Azaim: BISMILLAHIRROHMANIRROHIM A'JAMU ALAIKUM YA MA'SYAROL JAAN BI QOULILLAHI TA'ALA "(recite Surat Jinn Ayat 1) قُلْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّهُ اسْتَمَعَ نَفَرٌ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَقَالُوا إِنَّا سَمِعْنَا قُرْآناً عَجَباً
WA BIQOWLIHI TA'ALA A'JAMU ALAIKUM AN TAHDURUU ILA HADROTII HADZIHI WA MAQOMII HADZA (recite Surat Yasin Ayat 53) إِن كَانَتْ إِلَّا صَيْحَةً وَاحِدَةً فَإِذَا هُمْ جَمِيعٌ لَّدَيْنَا مُحْضَرُونَ
KADZALIKA TAHDURUUNA BI QOULIHI TA'ALA (recite Surat al-Ahqof Ayat 29- 32) وَإِذْ صَرَفْنَا إِلَيْكَ نَفَراً مِّنَ الْجِنِّ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الْقُرْآنَ فَلَمَّا حَضَرُوهُ قَالُوا أَنصِتُوا فَلَمَّا قُضِيَ وَلَّوْا إِلَى قَوْمِهِم مُّنذِرِينَ قَالُوا يَا قَوْمَنَا إِنَّا سَمِعْنَا كِتَاباً أُنزِلَ مِن بَعْدِ مُوسَى مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ وَإِلَى طَرِيقٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ يَا قَوْمَنَاأَجِيبُوا دَاعِيَ اللَّهِ وَآمِنُوا بِهِ يَغْفِرْ لَكُم مِّن ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَيُجِرْكُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ وَمَن لَّا يُجِبْ دَاعِيَ اللَّهِ فَلَيْسَ بِمُعْجِزٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ مِن دُونِ هِ أَولِيَاء أُوْلَئِكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ
FA AJIBUU WA ATI'UU (recite Surat al-Anfal ayat 21 and Ayat 23) وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يَسْمَعُونَ وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْراً لَّأسْمَعَهُمْ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ
AJIBUU WA 'AJJILUU BIL AJNIHATIT TOYYAROTI WAL LUGHOTIL MUKHTALIFATI WAL ASNAFIL 'AJIBATI INNALLOHA 'ALA JAM'IHIM IDZA YASYA U QODIRUN AINAT TOYYARUNA FIL HAWA I FIL HAWAI AINAL MUSTAROQUNAS SAM'I MINAS SAMA I AINAL GHOWASUNA TAHTA ATBAQIS TSARO AINAL ITSNANI WA SAB'UUNA QOBILATIN MIN QOBAILIL JINNI AL MA'DZUNATI BIT TO'ATI TAHATAD DAIROTI KHOTAMI SULAIMANA IBNI DAWUUDA ALAIHIMAS SALAM BIHAQQI (recite Surat an-Naml Ayat 39-40) قَالَ عِفْريتٌ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ أَنَا آتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن تَقُومَ مِن مَّقَامِكَ وَإِنِّي عَلَيْهِ لَقَوِيٌّ أَمِينٌ قَالَ الَّذِي عِندَهُ عِلْمٌ مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ أَنَا آتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن يَرْتَدَّ إِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَمَّا رَآهُ مُسْتَقِرّاً عِندَهُ قَالَ هَذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّي لِيَبْلُوَنِي أَأَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ وَمَن شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّي غَنِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ
MAN KANA MINKUM MIN ASYBAHI ARWAHIL YAHUDI FAINNI AQSAMTU ALAIKUM BIL 'UHUDI WA MIMMA KUTIBA FI AYATIS SUURI WA INKUNTUK MIN ASYBAHI ARWAHIN NASORO FA INNI AQSAMTU ALAIKUM BI INZILA ISA WA IN KUNTUM MIN ASYBAHI ARWAHIL MUSLIMINA FA INNI AQSAMTU ALAIKUM BI MUHAMMADIN KHOTAMIN NABIYYINA (Then recite Surat an-Naml Ayat 17, 30,31) وَحُشِرَ لِسُلَيْمَانَ جُنُودُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ وَالطَّيْرِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ إِنَّهُ مِن سُلَيْمَانَ وَإِنَّهُ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ أَلَّا تَعْلُوا عَلَيَّ وَأْتُونِي مُسْلِمِينَ
MA DA'AWTUKUM ILLA FI QODOI HAWAIJIL MUSLIMIN BAROKALLOHU FIKUM WA 'ALIKUM WA JADAKUMULLOHA NURUN 'ALA NURIN WAL HAMDULILLAHI ROBBIL 'ALAMINA.
This Qasam should be read after Salat al-Magrib and dawn 7 x
- Akhbar az-Zaman by al-Masudi (896-956 CE)
- Rawzat as-Safa Fi Sirat al-Anbiya Wa'l-Muluk Wa'l- Khulafa (روضة الصفا في سیرة الانبياء والملوك والخلفاء "The Gardens of purity in the biography of the prophets and kings and caliphs") by Muhammad bin Khwāndshāh bin Mahmud (1433-1498 CE)